IMM 110 Notes 09-27-2018

IMM 110 Notes 09-27-2018



The process of giving the illusion of movement or life to cinematographic drawings, models, or inanimate objects.

Consists of images that are designed to change over a period of time. Thus, synthesizing a desired motion effect - a mixing of natural phenomena, perception, and imagination.

Principles of Animation

Animation is possible because of a biological phenomenon known as pesistence of vision and a psychological phenomenon called phi

If you just change slightly the location or shape of an object rapidly enough, the eye will perceive the changes as motion.

Early Animation

  • Before the advent of computer animation, all animation was done by hand
  • Each second of animation contains aproximately 24 framess (films); thus, it was a tremendous amount of work

  • Early Animation Techniques

  • Key Frames
  • Cel - Walt Disney
  • Rotascoping

  • Key Frames

    The drawing or painting is usually done by more than one person. After a storyboard has been laid out, the senior artists go and draw the major frames of the animation. These major frames are frames in which a lot of changes take place. They are the key points of the animation. Later, a bunch of junior artists draw the frames in between. This way, the workload is distributed and controlled by the key frames.


    Each character is drawn on a separate piece of transparent paper. A background is also drawn on a separate piece of opaque paper. Then, when it comes to shooting the animation, the different characters are overlaid on top of the background in each frame.


    The process of copying images from moving video into an animation. For example, let us say that you want to animate a frog jumping. It is easier to draw the motion and shape of the frog in the different parts of the animation when you have some reference, such as video, as opposed to imagining it in your head

    Computer Animation

  • 2-D
  • 3-D
  • frame-by-frame
  • tweened (shape, motion)
  • transitions
  • morphing

  • 2-D

  • Simplest animations occur in two-dimensional space

  • -2 1/2 -D is where more complication animation occur (where shadowing, highlights and forced perspective provide an illusion depth).
  • Blinking word(color-changing cycling logo)
  • Button or tab that changes state of mouse rollover
  • Path-animation - bouncing ball

  • 3-D

    Process of rotating, scaling, and translating objects, or moving them within 3-dimensional space along their x-, y-, and z-axes


    Complex animation in which and image changes in every frame instead of simply moving. Every frame is a key frame.


    Define key frames at certain points and let the software interpolate the content of frames in between


    Wipes, fades, dissolves, and zooms...


    Images smoothly blend into new images. In technical terms what happens is, two images are distorted and a fade occurs between them.

    An images processing technique used for the metamorphosis from one image to another

    Software Packages

    • Lightwave 3D
    • Autodesk 3ds Max
    • Autodesk Maya
    • Cinema 4D
    • Adobe Animate
    • Adobe Character Animator
    • Blender
    • Adobe After Effects
    • SWiSH
    • Unity
    • Moho (2D animation)
    • Pencil 2D

    Software Packages

    Just a few formats:

    • .fli and .flc
    • .max
    • .avi
    • mov
    • .mpg
    • .gif
    • .mng
    • .webp

    • Entertainment

    • -Providing action and realism

    • Education

    • -Providing visualization and demonstration

    • Advertising

    • -Providing interest and stimulation